"When we talk about "decarbonization," we typically mean the process of lowering "carbon intensity," or the volume of greenhouse gas emissions brought on by the burning of fossil fuels.
Typically, this entails lowering CO2 emission per unit of produced electricity. To reach the global temperature goals established by the Paris Agreement and the UK government,
it is imperative to reduce the quantity of carbon dioxide produced by transportation and energy production.
Following the prioritization of decarbonization outlined in the Paris Agreement. The Committee on Climate Change recommended that obtaining this net zero was not only doable but also vital and cost-effective after Parliament's declaration of a climate emergency.
As the transportation industry electrifies and the need for electric power rises, rapid decarbonization is becoming increasingly essential.
In India, the two industries that release the most CO2 are steel and cement, which together account for more than half of all industrial emissions. By the middle of the century, the nation will surpass China as the second-largest producer of cement and steel in the world. This is due to the country's rapid urbanization and industrialization.
India has set a goal of becoming net zero by 2070 in recognition of the need to address climate change. India has additional aims for 2030 in addition to the overall objective for 2070:
• Reach a non-fossil fuel capacity of 500 GW,
• obtain 50% of its energy needs from renewable sources,
• cut carbon emissions by 1 billion tonnes,
• cut carbon intensity by 45%.
Utilizing more energy-efficient and low-carbon energy sources can help with some of the most popular decarbonization strategies. Even though fossil fuels like diesel and petroleum make up the majority of the world's transportation system,
using more electric vehicles would increase the industry's contribution to reducing carbon emissions. There is a multitude of ways forward including the usage of Low carbon materials, optimization of the energy sector,
Waste management through the circular economy and so on. Which electricity sector is one of the major carbon contributors.
13.6 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) were released into the atmosphere by the electricity industry in 2018, accounting for 41% of all emissions worldwide. Global emissions from all economic sectors, including the power sector,
must be reduced to net zero by 2050 in order to have a chance of keeping global temperature rise below 1.5 degrees Celsius in comparison to its pre-industrial level. This makes the electricity sector a primary sector to start with decarbonization.
Pathways to Decarbonization in the Power sector
Renewable energy sources are replacing fossil fuels in the world's energy mix. Examples of both governmental and commercial groups putting forth the significant effort to decarbonize the economy abound.
New ecologies are developing and new technologies are becoming more prevalent as the "Green Deal" or revolution of the energy sector gathers steam. As part of an increasingly circular economy, these advancements are assisting in the development of
renewable energy sources, new energy carriers, increased energy efficiency,
decreased emissions, and new markets for carbon and other byproducts. Many of these frequently
pursued decarbonization methods, such as expanded electrification, widespread use of renewable energy, and stepping up energy efficiency efforts, present particular difficulties.
To achieve their energy needs, the Indian steel and cement industries rely substantially (>90%) on fossil fuels, and both industries have long-standing relationships with the suppliers of these carbon-intensive fuels.
Improving energy efficiency, implementing renewable energy and electricity storage technologies, switching to alternative fuels (biomass, waste, green hydrogen, and solar thermal power), or directly electrifying processes are just a few of the technological options
available to reduce energy emissions.
There are many renewable energy resources in Europe, and in recent years, its nations have taken the lead in promoting the adoption of renewable technologies. With targets for renewable energy set for every European nation and the ambition of
the members of the European Union (EU) to become "the world's number one in renewables," efforts to strengthen the sustainability of energy systems in Europe are ongoing. China, Costa Rica, Denmark, Ethiopia, and the United Kingdom are further
forward than many others, yet relatively few nations are on pace. 5 Lessons on Energy Decarbonization from Countries Leading the Way are as follows:
1- Energy efficiency investments: Over the past few years, China, Denmark, Ethiopia, and the UK have all reduced their energy intensity at rates of at least 4% annually, greatly above the world average of 2.3%. This shows that they are enhancing their economies' energy efficiency and lowering energy consumption. China, Denmark, and the UK have all
established energy efficiency goals and put in place a whole range of investment and policy programs to boost energy efficiency.
2-Investment in non-hydro renewable energy: Wind, solar photovoltaics, and geothermal energy investments are helping many nations move toward a carbon-free electrical system.
By 2017, Costa Rica, Denmark, and the UK were all using 20% or more of their energy from non-hydro-renewable sources, up from almost none in 1990. Kenya has also significantly increased its capacity, particularly in geothermal.
As the world's largest market for solar and wind energy,
China has had modest growth in renewable energy as a share of its overall electricity demand, but an enormous increase in absolute terms
3- The electrification of the energy sector is correlated with increasing affluence and economic development; China is one of the nations with the fastest growth in and the greatest share of electricity use relative to
total energy consumption. Compared to other energy sources like the direct consumption of fossil fuels.
4-Building electrification: has advanced significantly, while transportation electrification has lagged. The sector of buildings, which includes both residential and commercial buildings, has by far the largest market share and growth for electricity.
This is related to the rise of the consumer classes in emerging nations, who buy more electric lighting, fans, and air conditioners while consuming a lesser percentage of firewood or other traditional biomass fuels in their homes.
These economies also experienced growth in the services sector, which is generally more electrified.
5-Direct commitments to decarbonization and sustainable energy:: The economies of Costa Rica, Denmark, and the UK have all set 2050 net-zero emissions objectives for their whole economies.
The decades-long efforts that these nations have previously put forth in the areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable development are built upon by their promises to complete decarbonization.
It is advisable for more nations to adopt specific decarbonization goals.
Energy intensity patterns, efficiency trends, and the utilization of renewable resources vary greatly around the globe. The longer-term goal of decarbonization by 2050 necessitates investment in renewable energy sources
and energy efficiency across the globe. Higher energy efficiency and proportions of renewables are the greatest possibilities, regardless of the technology options. Multiple local benefits can
be obtained by increasing energy efficiency and implementing renewable energy infrastructure, including offshore installations.
• The first step in the task is to switch from using fossil fuels to clean energy that decarbonizes power.
• A significant transition to electrification can then expand access to clean energy and replace polluting fuels, with rising amounts of clean energy following.
• Lowering demand is facilitated by increasing energy efficiency
• By absorbing and storing carbon, better land and forest management helps maintain the health of natural carbon sinks, which reduces emissions
• On the policy front, by setting pricing appropriately as part of a comprehensive policy package that offers incentives to guarantee that low-carbon growth plans are implemented and projects are funded,
governments may start reorienting investments and attitudes toward low-carbon growth.